‘The Children of the Night’ is a 1931 short story by Robert E. Howard, belonging to the Cthulhu Mythos. It was accepted by Weird Tales circa October 1930 and was published in the April/May 1931 issue. Howard earned $60 for this publication.

Lovecraft and his letters were an inspiration for some of Howard’s stories, like his comments on the witch cults and legends of “little people” work their way into “The Children of the Night” and “Worms of the Earth.” 

The story starts with six people sitting in John Conrad’s study: Conrad himself, Clemants, Professor Kirowan, Taverel, Ketrick and the narrator John O’Donnel. O’Donnel describes them all as Anglo-Saxon with the exception of Ketrick. Ketrick, although he possesses a documented pure Anglo-Saxon lineage, appears to have slightly Mongolian-looking eyes and an odd lisp that O’Donnel finds distasteful.

In a letter to HPL (#143) Howard writes:

By the way, I recently sold Weird Tales a short story, “The Children of the Night” in which I deal with Mongoloid-aborigine legendry, touch cryptically on the Bran-cult, and hint darkly and vaguely of nameless things connected with Cthulhu, Yog-Sothoth, Tsathoggua and the Necronomicon; as well as quoting lines from Flecker’s9 “Gates of Damascus” and lending them a cryptic meaning which I’m sure would have astounded the poet remarkably!

Lovecraft liked the story and told Howard in a letter. Circa June 1931, we learn from another letter (#169) to Lovecraft:

I’m glad you liked “Children of the Night”. Some remarks of yours in your letters regarding the Mongoloid aborigines gave me many of the ideas. As regards my mention of the three foremost weird masterpieces — Poe’s, Machen’s and your own — it’s my honest opinion that these three are the outstanding tales. Though I consider your “Dunwitch Horror”, “Horror at Red Hook” and “Rats in the Walls” quite worthy of ranking alongside Poe and Machen, also.

And later (letter #220), circa mid-October 1932 we learn:

By the way, you mentioned that my “Children of the Night” got a mention in the O. Henry Memorial prize annual. What is this annual, and is it possible for me to get a copy of it? The reason I ask, is I gather it’s something of a boost to get mentioned in it, and it’s just possible that I might be able to boost myself with an editor sometime. Any information you can give me about this business will be greatly appreciated.

O. Henry Memorial Award Prize Stories of 1931, edited by Blanche Colton Williams, included “The Children of the Night” among “Stories ranking second.”

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