List of recommended reading

In Rough Order of Recommendation
From Robert E. Howard: Bibliography of Secondary Sources
by Lee A. Breakiron (c) 2021
– used with permission –

Author

References

Burke, Rusty

“A Short History of Robert E. Howard” in The Savage Tales of Solomon Kane (ed. Rusty Burke; Wandering Star, London, 1998), pp. A3-14; reprinted in The Savage Tales of Solomon Kane (Del Rey/Ballantine, New York, 2004), pp. 393-406; revised in The Best of Robert E. Howard, Volume One: Crimson Shadows (Subterranean Press, Burton, Mich., 2009), pp. 485-496; posted at https://rehfoundation.org/howard-biography/; excerpts reprinted as REH: A Short History of Robert E. Howard (Cross Plains Comics, New York, 1999), 64 pp. w/14 photos, 6 of REH; also reprinted as REH: A Short History of Robert E. Howard on The World of Robert E. Howard website.

Finn, Mark

Blood & Thunder: The Life & Art of Robert E. Howard [only the 2nd full-length, & the 1st definitive, biography, it endeavors to understand the author through the influences of his Texas background & through his writings; calls REH “the greatest pulp writer who ever lived,” saying he was a pioneer creating  something new, innovative, & completely unique] (MonkeyBrain Books, Austin, 2006), 203 pp. w/11 photos, 4 of REH; excerpted in “A Look at Blood and Thunder” in The Cimmerian, Vol. 3, #6 (Leo Grin, Playa del Rey, Cal., June, 2006), pp. 23-26; expanded as Blood and Thunder: The Life and Art of Robert E. Howard [Part 1 surveys the history of Texas up to REH’s time as it relates to its people, economy & culture; & details REH’s early cultural, social, & familial environment & influences, noting that REH “fictionalized his home state, drawing from its history and geography.”  Part 2 discusses Texas folklore & its exaggerated oral traditions; how REH’s familiarity with them fits his colorful, exciting, & earnest prose style; & how his literary experimentation, friendships with like-minded locals, & frustrations with schoolwork & stifling jobs finally culminate in the start of his literary career, as he wrote stories that often criticized or satirized civilization, even as they reflected the ethnic views of his time & place.  Part 3 considers REH’s boxing &  barbarian stories, along with their inspirations, influence, & achievements, incl. national & REH’s interest in & his participation in the sport of boxing, his extensive, cross-pollinating, & sometimes contentious correspondence with H. P. Lovecraft, & the exigencies of a depressed writing market & its fickle editors.  Part 4 covers REH’s off-and-on relationship with Novalyne Price; his meetings with E. Hoffmann Price; his mother Hester’s increasing needs for medical attention; REH’s westerns & El Borak adventures; his strained familial  relationships; the circumstances of, causal factors in, & aftermath of his suicide; & the legacy of L. Sprague de Camp] (The Robert E. Howard Foundation Press, Plano, Tex., 2011), 454 pp. w/10 photos, 5 of REH plus cover

Ellis, Novalyne Price

One Who Walked Alone: Robert E. Howard, The Final Years [best, detailed memoir of someone who knew REH personally, namely a schoolteacher who dated him in 1934-36; REH’s being a social outsider: pp. 39, 40, 81, 125, 126, 128, 144, 246, 251, 253, 261, 282, 315, & 316; his caretaking of his mother: pp. 48, 51, 54, 164, 168, 190, 192, 194, 196, 217, 252, 253, 263, 264, 266, 267, 271, 273-275, 276, 278, 291, 294, & 305; his dressing: pp. 16, 57, 67, 68, 70, 71, 240, 249-251, 256, & 257; his enemies: pp. 74, 75, 112, 153, 257, 258, & 289; his feelings on bullying: pp. 220-222; his feelings about & use of history: pp. 64, 65, 87, 90-92, 105, 121, 134, 143, 144, 147, 148, 153, 169-171, 176, 177, 180, 206, 223, 226, 252, 290, & 292; his feelings about old age: pp. 132, 167, & 273-275; his moods: pp. 104, 178, 180 208, 218, 223, 265-270, 280, 282, 284, & 295; his mother attachment: pp. 127, 128, 130, 131, 142, 145-147, 151, 182, 190, 191, 194, 195, 197, 199, 232, 236, 245, 253, 293, 304, 305, 310-313, & 315; his mustache: pp. 240, 241, 248, 249, 256, 257, 262, 264, 265, 267, 269, 273, 274, 276, & 306; his non-writing jobs: pp. 17, 49, & 114; his opinions on church going, religion, reincarnation, & ancestral memories: pp. 130, 148, 150, 160, 176, 180, 203, 224, 226, 227, 258, 259, 277, & 295; his opinions on the state of civilization, society, & the world: pp. 62, 63, 80, 96, 107, 139, 140, 154, 166, 171, 178, 206, 207, 219, 223, 224, 245, 252, 255, 256, 258, 280-282, 290, & 315; his opinions on teaching & education: pp. 17, 51, 154, 156, 157, 173, 214-216, 218, & 219; his photos: pp. 108, 109, 238, & 239; his racialism: pp. 80, 92-97, 100, 143, 149, 201, & 202; his reading, writing, & opinions thereon: pp. 18, 20, 21, 47, 59, 62, 63, 77-79, 83, 85, 92, 105-107, 133, 139, 141, 143, 144, 150-152, 154, 156, 166, 178-180, 195, 200, 201, 215, 216, 223, 226, 227, 230, 244-247, 262, 263, 273, 278, 279, 286-293, 295, 304, 310, & 316; emotional & sexual love: pp. 116, 117, 120, 121, 130, 131, 135, 139-142, 145-147, 156, 190, 192, 193, 200-202, 212, 228, 233, 246, 267-272, 274, 278, 279, 286, & 316; Hester when not sick: pp. 40, 41, 45, 48, 82, 98, 115, 127, 128, 137, 138, 142, 145, 149, 168, 196, 197, & 217; Indians: pp. 97, 98, 100, 101, 105, 144, 148, 149, 157, 169, 170, 171, 180, 196, 229, 242, & 286; Isaac Howard: pp. 45, 46, 54, 82, 123, 125, 144, 145, 167, 181, 182, 187-189, 194, 195, 196, 217, 218, 249, 252, 276, 296, 304, 305, & 308; Dave Lee: pp. 174, 175, 178, & 230; H. P. Lovecraft: pp. 116, 128, & 151; Billy Ruth Loving: pp. 183 & 186; Novalyne’s health breakdown: pp. 186-192; Novalyne’s photo: pp. 298, 299, & back d.j. cover; poetry: pp. 50, 92, 105, 119, 128, 129, 130, 131, 134, 179, & 222; E. Hoffmann Price: pp. 114-116; Shakespeare: pp. 204, 205, & 301; Tevis Clyde Smith: pp. 11, 15-23, 40, 41, 50, 52-55, 72, 78, 125, 174, 175, 204, 209, 213, 214, 230, 233, & 234; suicide: pp. 190 & 302-310; Lindsey Tyson: pp. 174, 175, & 230; & Truett Vinson: pp. 40, 71, 125, 174, 208-218, 223, 225, 227-237, 243, 253, 256, 260, 261, 265-268, 270, 274, 275, 278, 296, 302, 304, & 315] (Donald M. Grant, West Kingston, R.I., 1986), 317 pp. w/9 photos

Ellis, Novalyne Price

“Speech about Robert E. Howard” [she & REH never went beyond being friends because their individual plans &  obligations prevented their relationship from meshing; REH was fascinated by history, people, & writing; he was brilliant, exuberant, & moody, but not paranoid or overly dependent on his mother; family members simply helped one another more than they do now; he thought of himself as a loner & hack because he had low self-esteem, but worked hard to succeed & meet his responsibilities, which didn’t give him time to socialize as others did, nor did he feel a need to conform; REH drew heavily on the history, people, & settings of Texas for story material; factors in his suicide were the limited number & availability of friends, his lack of time to work undisturbed & to sleep while caring for his mother, the extreme stress he was under, & his pessimistic worldview] in Let the Good Times Roll: The Official Nolacon II Program & Souvenir Volume (ed. Guy H. Lillian, III; Nolacon Corp., New Orleans, Sep., 1988), pp. 48-50; reprinted in Ellis’s Day of the Stranger: Further Memories of Robert E. Howard (ed. Rusty Burke; Necronomicon Press, West Warwick, R.I., 1989), pp. 41-47

de Camp, L. Sprague, de Camp, Catherine Crook; & Griffin, Jane Whittington

Dark Valley Destiny: The Life of Robert E. Howard [the 1st full-length biography, most valuable now for interviews with REH’s relatives & associates, but with some astute observations about REH’s environment, family life, influences, style, poetry, and achievements, including world-building, but marred by amateur psychoanalysis & selection of facts to support preconceptions.  Chap. 1 treats REH’s suicide, whose causes “were deeper and older than his grief over his mother’s impending death … her passing became the occasion for, not the cause of his suicide,” which cut short a promising literary career & was related to his fatalistic stoicism, poor self-image, sense of the melodramatic, lack of social connections & paternal guidance, & a complexity of personality that ranged from dreamy & brooding to eccentric & paranoid.  Chap. 2 presents his mother’s family history, along with speculations about such things as the cause of his mother’s despondency & REH’s supposed tendency to be delusional.  Chap. 3 surveys his father’s family history, medical training, early practice, & personality, again speculating about REH’s delusions.  Chap. 4 covers REH’s childhood, during which frequent moves, local bullies, & parental control & friction led him to feel threatened & frustrated, & to be repressed & temperamental, feeding his fantasies.  Chap. 5 relates REH’s sojourns in Cross Cut & Burkett, when he absorbed the landscapes & imagined adventures that would show up in his fiction, started to acquire friends & to resent the oppressiveness of school, & was further subjected to his parents’ worsening relationship.  Chap. 6 sketches Texas’s geography, history, & culture, which were reflected in REH’s writings, esp. the violence; REH became an “enthusiastic if superficial” historian as a means of objectifying his feelings in a quest for selfhood, though he supposedly never succeeded in his struggle to separate fantasy & reality or to cope with the latter.  Chap. 7 describes his school years in Cross Plains & Brownwood, when he was exposed to the human influxes & seamy life of an oil boom town & the frustrating confinements of temporary jobs; read voraciously; & started showing supposedly anti-social behavior such as reclusive introspection, paranoia about enemies, & fascination with suicide.  Chap. 8 tells about his final schooling; more dead-end jobs; his struggles to get published; his attitudes toward race, religion, sports, & women; & his barely contained fury.  Chap. 9 critiques his poetry & early Solomon Kane, Kull, & boxing stories, & portrays his friendship with Harold Preece.  Chap. 10 recounts REH’s eccentricities, his correspondence with Lovecraft & others, the impact of the Great Depression, & the start of his Celtic phase.  Chap. 11 expounds on the Conan stories; literary & cinematic influences on REH; his place & people naming in his stories; his masculine, efficient, often poetic, & emotion-driven style; & his other strengths & weaknesses as a writer; the pulp magazine market, conventions, & reception of REH; & how REH “turned his hatred on himself” when he took his own life.  Chap. 12 discusses REH’s social interactions, esp. his meeting with E. Hoffmann Price & relationship with Novalyne Price, incl. a photo of her; more on his paranoia about enemies; his El Borak, western, & detective stories; & his writing habits.  Chap. 13 handles Hester’s declining health; REH’s heroines, last stories, letters, & travels; his parting from Novalyne; & his & Hester’s deaths.  Chap. 14 talks about Isaac Howard’s actions just before & after REH’s death; Isaac’s final years; the fate of REH’s unpublished works; & REH’s posthumous publications & popularity] (Bluejay Books, New York, 1983), 402 pp. w/16 photos, 8 of REH

Lord, Glenn

The Last Celt: A Bio-Bibliography of Robert Ervin Howard [biographical & autobiographical essays, excerpts from REH’s letters, extensive bibliography of published & unpub. fiction & poetry, & photos] (Donald M. Grant, West Kingston, R.I., 1976), 416 pp. w/12 photos; reprinted by Berkley Windhover (New York, 1977): see Lord’s “Beachcombers’ Argument – Robert E. Howard and Truett Vinson,” “The Bibliography,” Foreword, “Howard As a Child,” “Inscription on copy sent to E. Hoffmann Price: ‘Schlitz …’,” “Inscription on copy sent to Lovecraft: ‘Ruins of Fort McKavett, July 9, 1933 …’,” “Lone Star Fictioneer,” “The Last Celt: Addenda to the Bibliography,” “Robert E. Howard/Dave Lee,” “Robert E. Howard Studio Portrait  ̶  Alternate,” “Robert E. Howard – Truett Vinson – Tevis Clyde Smith,” & Ultima Thule #5 & #6

Lord, Glenn

“Robert E. Howard: Professional Writer” [survey of his career, publishing venues, & work habits; revision of Lord’s “The Writing Game”] in The Dark Barbarian: The Writings of Robert E. Howard  ̶  A Critical Anthology (ed. Don Herron; Greenwood Press, Westport, Conn., 1984; reprinted by Wildside Press, Berkeley Heights, N.J., 2000), pp. 135-147 & in The Dark Barbarian That Towers over All: The Robert E. Howard LitCrit MegaPack (ed. Don Herron; Kindle e-book, 2014)

Howard, Robert E.

The Collected Letters of Robert E. Howard (ed. Rob Roehm; The Robert E. Howard Foundation, Plano, Tex.), Vol. One: 1923-1929 (2007; 99 letters; 398 pp.; intro. (pp. xi-xv) & notes (xix-xxi) by Rusty Burke) & Vol. Two: 1930-1932 (2007; 109 letters; 543 pp.; intro. (xi-xiv) & notes (pp. xvii-xviii) by Burke) & Vol. Three: 1933-1936 (2008; 147 letters; 550 pp.; intro. (pp. xiii-xviii) & notes (xxi-xxii) by Burke)

Lovecraft, H. P. & Howard, Robert E.

A Means to Freedom: The Letters of H. P. Lovecraft and Robert E. Howard (ed. S. T. Joshi, David E. Schultz, & Rusty Burke; Hippocampus Press, New York, 2009), Vol. 1: 1930-1932 (75 letters; 511 pp.; intro., pp. 7-14) & Vol. 2: 1933-1936 (54 letters; 493 pp.; appendix, glossary, bibliography, & index)

Leiber, Fritz

“Howard’s Fantasy” [on how REH’s poetic style, unique talent, & sincere intensity make his best adventure stories so exciting & unforgettable, esp. Conan’s, which are reviewed; expanded from his “Howard’s Style”] in The Dark Barbarian: The Writings of Robert E. Howard  ̶  A Critical Anthology (ed. Don Herron; Greenwood Press, Westport, Conn., 1984; reprinted by Wildside Press, Berkeley Heights, N.J., 2000), pp. 3-15; reprinted in The Dark Barbarian That Towers over All: The Robert E. Howard LitCrit MegaPack (ed. Don Herron; Kindle e-book, 2014)

Herron, Don

“The Dark Barbarian” [REH as a literary phenomenon, creator of cultural myth, & one of the most influential figures in the history of fantasy, who has only been damaged by pastiches] in The Dark Barbarian: The Writings of Robert E. Howard  ̶  A Critical Anthology (ed. Don Herron; Greenwood Press, Westport, Conn., 1984; reprinted by Wildside Press, Berkeley Heights, N.J., 2000), pp. 149-181 & in The Dark Barbarian That Towers over All: The Robert E. Howard LitCrit MegaPack (ed. Don Herron; Kindle e-book, 2014)

Herron, Don (writing as Knight, George)

“Robert E. Howard: Hard-Boiled Heroic Fantasist” [maintains REH was a unique & important fantasist because he injected into his stories modern realism, naturalism, & American-style favor for the common man over organized authority, in the tradition of Hammett and Chandler] in The Dark Barbarian: The Writings of Robert E. Howard  ̶  A Critical Anthology (ed. Don Herron; Greenwood Press, Westport, Conn., 1984; reprinted by Wildside Press, Berkeley Heights, N.J., 2000), pp. 117-133 & in The Dark Barbarian That Towers over All: The Robert E. Howard LitCrit MegaPack (ed. Don Herron; Kindle e-book, 2014)

Lovecraft, H. P.; Kline, Otis Adelbert; Price. E. Hoffmann; Byrne, Jack

“In Memoriam: Robert Ervin Howard” [bio sketch & encomiums to his attainments, talent, character, & promise] in Fantasy Magazine #38, Vol. 6, #4 (Julius Schwartz, New York, Sep., 1936), pp. 29-32 w/1 p. insert of 6 photos, 1 of REH; Lovecraft portion reprinted as “Robert E. Howard: A Memoriam” in Skull-Face and Others (Arkham House Publishers, Sauk City, Wis., 1946), pp. xiii-xvi & in Skull-Face Omnibus (Neville Spearman, Jersey, Britain, 1974), pp. xiii-xvi & in Skull-Face Omnibus (Panther Books, St. Albans, England, 1976), pp. 13-17 & in Glenn Lord’s The Last Celt: A Bio-Bibliography of Robert Ervin Howard (Donald M. Grant, West Kingston, R.I., 1976; reprinted by Berkley Windhover (New York, 1977)), pp. 67-70 & in Miscellaneous Writings: H. P. Lovecraft (Arkham House Publishers, 1995), pp. 123-126; all reprinted as “Robert Ervin Howard 1906-1936” in Second Anniversary Catalog (Necronomicon Press, West Warwick, R.I.), 21 Jul. 1979, pp. ?-?; all reprinted minus photos in Sword & Fantasy #1 (James Van Hise, Yucca Valley, Cal., Jan., 2005), pp. 5-8; Kline’s, Prices’s, & Byrne’s portions reprinted in Glenn Lord’s Costigan #5, pp. 1-2 in REHupa Mailing #6 (Nov., 1973) & in Rusty Burke’s Seanchai, Aug., 1993, pp. 1-2 in REHupa Mailing #122 (Aug., 1993) & as “The Fantasy Magazine Howard Memorial” in The Book of The Howard Review (Dennis McHaney, Lulu.com, Dec., 2010), pp. 166-167; 6-photo sheet reprinted in James Van Hise’s The Road to Velitrium #76, p. 6 in REHupa Mailing #228 (Apr., 2011) & in Lee A. Breakiron’s The Nemedian Chroniclers #19, p. 4 in REHupa Mailing #252 (Apr., 2015)

Louinet, Patrice

“Atlantean Genesis” [circumstances, motivations, & inspirations of REH’s creation & publishing of the Kull stories, incl. his realism-based invention of Sword & Sorcery; his world-building that mixed Crô-Magnons vs. Neander- thals, the Atlantis legend, & Theosophical occultism; his reflecting both an affinity for the Biblical Saul & appearance vs. reality paranoia in “The Shadow Kingdom”; his metaphysical musings; & his taking cues from Shakespeare in “By This Axe I Rule!”] in Kull: Exile of Atlantis (by REH; ed. Patrice Louinet; Del Rey/Ballantine, New York, 2006; reprinted by Subterranean Press, Burton, Mich., 2008), pp. 287-303; reprinted in French in Kull le roi atlante (Bragelonne, Paris, 2010), pp. 407-429; reprinted in Italian as “Genesi del barbaro di Atlantide” in Kull. Esule di Atlantide (Arnoldo Mondadori Editore, Milan, 2008), pp. 305-?

Louinet, Patrice

“Hyborian Genesis, Part I: Notes on the Creation of the Conan Stories” [circumstances, motivations, & inspirations of REH’s creation & publishing of the Conan tales of 1932-1933, incl. reincarnation, Bulfinch’s Mythology, “The Hyborian Age” essay, Sax Rohmer, & Southwestern history] in Robert E. Howard’s Complete Conan of Cimmeria, Volume One (1932-1933) (ed. Patrice Louinet; Wandering Star, London, 2002), pp. A1-A24; reprinted in The Coming of Conan the Cimmerian (Del Rey/Ballantine, New York, 2003), pp. 429-452; reprinted in French in Conan le Cimmérien.  Premier volume: 1932-1933 (Bragelonne, Paris, 2007), pp. 541-571

Louinet, Patrice

“Hyborian Genesis, Part II: Notes on the Creation of the Conan Stories” [circumstances, motivations, & inspirations of REH’s creation & publishing of the Conan tales of early 1934, incl. Talbot Mundy, the pulp Adventure, the British book market, Almuric, Arthurian legendry, & Shakespeare] in Robert E. Howard’s Complete Conan of Cimmeria, Volume Two (1934) (ed. Patrice Louinet; Wandering Star, London, 2003), pp. A1-A13; reprinted in The Bloody Crown of Conan (Del Rey/Ballantine, New York, 2003), pp. 347-359; reprinted in French in Conan: L’Heure du dragon.  Deuxième volume: 1934 (Bragelonne, Paris, 2008), pp. 459-476

Louinet, Patrice

“Hyborian Genesis, Part III: Notes on the Creation of the Conan Stories” [circumstances, motivations, & inspirations of REH’s creation & publishing of the Conan tales of late 1934 on, incl. Robert W. Chambers, Picts, civilization vs. barbarism, The Scarlet Letter, sex, civilization’s decay into decadence, the Lincoln County War, & “The Hyborian Age” essay] in The Conquering Sword of Conan (by REH; ed. Patrice Louinet; Del Rey/Ballantine, New York, 2005), pp. 369-386; reprinted in French in Conan: Les Clous rouges.  Troisième volume: 1934-1935 (Bragelonne, Paris, 2008), pp. 499-524; reprinted in English in Robert E. Howard’s Complete Conan of Cimmeria, Volume Three (1935) (Wandering Star/Book Palace Books, London, 2009), pp. A1-A18

Hoffman, Charles

“Conan the Existential” [REH’s belief in existentialism as expressed through his fantasy protagonists; expanded from “Conan the Existentialist”] in Ariel #1 (Morning Star Press, Leawood, Kan., autumn, 1976), pp. 77-80; reprinted in Vernon M. Clark’s Dreams from Yoharneth-Lahai #34, pp. 6-9 in REHupa Mailing #76 (July, 1985); revised in Cromlech #1, Vol. 1, #1 (Marc A. Cerasini, New York), pp. 4-13 (spring, 1985) & in The Barbaric Triumph: A Critical Anthology on the Writings of Robert E. Howard (ed. Don Herron; Wildside Press, Holicong, Pa., 2004), pp. 5-10; reprinted in The Dark Barbarian That Towers over All: The Robert E. Howard LitCrit MegaPack (ed. Don Herron; Kindle e-book, 2014); reprinted in Spanish as “Conan el Existencial” in Lhork #3 (Eugenio Fraile La Ossa, Madrid, undated), pp. 33-36

Eng, Steve

“Barbarian Bard: The Poetry of Robert E. Howard” [REH’s love & talent for poetry, the influences thereon, & the vigorous, romantic, & frequently despairing character of his poems, which are categorized & evaluated & said to beg to be read aloud] in The Dark Barbarian: The Writings of Robert E. Howard - A Critical Anthology (ed. Don Herron; Greenwood Press, Westport, Conn., 1984; reprinted by Wildside Press, Berkeley Heights, N.J., 2000), pp. 23-64 & in The Collected Poetry of Robert E. Howard (ed. Rob Roehm; The Robert E. Howard Foundation Press, Plano, Tex., 2008), pp. xxv-lxxvi & in The Dark Barbarian That Towers over All: The Robert E. Howard LitCrit MegaPack (ed. Don Herron; Kindle e-book, 2014)

Sidney-Fryer, Donald

Introduction [REH’s influences, qualities, & accomplishments as a poet, in particular his imagery, color, rhythm, imagination, & strangeness of his prose-poems herein; REH is 2nd only as a prose-poet in English to Clark Ashton Smith] to Etchings in Ivory: Poems in Prose (by REH; Glenn Lord, Pasadena, Tex., 1968 & anonymous forgery thereof by Fred Cook), pp. i-vi; slightly revised as “Robert E. Howard: Frontiersman of Letters” in The Dark Barbarian: The Writings of Robert E. Howard - A Critical Anthology (ed. Don Herron; Greenwood Press, Westport, Conn., 1984; reprinted by Wildside Press, Berkeley Heights, N.J., 2000), pp. 17-22; latter reprinted in French in Échos de Cimmérie: Hommage à Robert Ervin Howard (1906-1936) (ed. Fabrice Tortey; Les Éditions de l’Oeil du Sphinx, Paris, 2009), pp. 189-194; latter reprinted in English The Dark Barbarian That Towers over All: The Robert E. Howard LitCrit MegaPack (ed. Don Herron; Kindle e-book, 2014)

Sidney-Fryer, Donald

“Robert E. Howard: Epic Poet in Prose” [inspirations of REH’s fiction from epic poems of the past & resemblances thereto in its style & structure] in The Cimmerian, Vol. 3, #12 (Leo Grin, Playa del Rey, Cal., Dec., 2006), pp. 5-13; see erratum in TC, Vol. 4, #2, p. 30 

Reasoner, James

“Robert E. Howard: Western Pulp Pioneer” [intro.; REH’s motivations & accomplishments in writing serious westerns, incl. vivid, vigorous stories pioneering such elements as character psychology, nourish atmosphere, & hard-boiled protagonists & creating the weird western subgenre, even if they were often too violent or offbeat for publication; speculates about REH’s future had he lived] in Western Tales (ed. Rob Roehm; The Robert E. Howard Foundation Press, Plano, Tex., 2013), pp. v-xiv

Trout, Steve

“Heritage of Steel: Howard and the Frontier Myth” [importance of the frontier & wilderness on the outlook & psyche of Americans, as expressed in national myth & by cleansing violence in confrontations with hostile natives & natural dangers, such as those manifested in REH’s Southwestern, Middle Eastern, & fantasy fiction & in his historical outlook] in The Barbaric Triumph: A Critical Anthology on the Writings of Robert E. Howard (ed. Don Herron; Wildside Press, Holicong, Pa., N.J., 2004), pp. 59-78; reprinted in The Dark Barbarian That Towers over All: The Robert E. Howard LitCrit MegaPack (ed. Don Herron; Kindle e-book, 2014)

Indick, Ben P.

“The Western Fiction of Robert E. Howard” [how his background of & fascination for the American West informed his later writing, incl. serious & comic westerns & fantasies, which are placed in the American frontier story tradition] in The Dark Barbarian: The Writings of Robert E. Howard -  A Critical Anthology (ed. Don Herron; Greenwood Press, Westport, Conn., 1984; reprinted by Wildside Press, Berkeley Heights, N.J., 2000), pp. 99-116 & in Indick’s Cimmerian Notes, Oct., 1989, pp. 13-30 in REHupa Mailing #100 (Nov., 1989) & in The Dark Barbarian That Towers over All: The Robert E. Howard LitCrit MegaPack (ed. Don Herron; Kindle e-book, 2014)

Holmes, Morgan

“The Wild Wild West of Robert E. Howard” [surveys REH’s westerns, esp. the serious ones, concluding they were neglected or underappreciated by editors of his time & by critics later on; REH’s pioneering efforts in the genre were ahead of their time & helped lead the way to a more realistic, literate style & a grimmer, more hard-boiled tone] in Blood ’n’ Thunder #48 (ed. Ed Hulse; Murania Press, Morris Plains, N.J., summer, 2016), pp. 44-53

Hardy, David A.

“Gunfighters of the Wild East” [inspiration, development, & survey of the El Borak stories, influences thereon, & characters & motifs therein] in El Borak and Other Desert Adventures (Del Rey/Ballantine Books, New York, 2010), pp. 529-553

Sheaffer, Scott

“El Borak, the Swift” [surveys & analyzes the “El Borak” stories & compares them with one another & with other stories by REH & others in order to show REH’s development as a writer, his evolving conception of the character, & his use of the character to express personal opinions & philosophies, e.g. on barbarism vs. civilization, individual vs. common good, & intellect vs. physicality, reflecting such debates with Lovecraft] in Two-Gun Bob: A Centennial Study of Robert E. Howard (ed. Benjamin Szumskyj; Hippocampus Press, New York, 2006), pp. 143-175

Burke, Rusty & Louinet, Patrice

“Robert E. Howard, Bran Mak Morn and the Picts” [his long use of Picts in his writings & his evolving portrayal of them as his empathy for & knowledge of their pseudo-historical basis changed] in Bran Mak Morn: The Last King (by REH; ed. Patrice Louinet; Wandering Star, London, 2001), pp. A21-A38; reprinted by Del Rey/Ballantine (New York, 2005), pp. 343-360; reprinted in Robert E. Howard’s Worms of the Earth (ed. Michael J. Venables; Wandering Star/Cross Plains Comics, 2000), pp. 58-60; reprinted in French in Bran Mak Morn  ̶  L’Intégrale (Bragelonne, Paris, 2009), pp. 459-487; reprinted in Italian in Bran Mak Morn (Arnoldo Mondadori Editore, Milan, 2009), pp. 201-?

Finn, Mark

“Fists of Robert E. Howard” [importance of boxing as entertainment to contemporary Americans & to REH, esp. since he was familiar with it as a reader, viewer, & participant with friends & locals; his many & dedicated efforts to pub. serious & comedic boxing yarns of Sailor Steve Costigan & others in pulps; his success at doing so both popularly & literarily; & whether his obsession with physical strength & prowess might have been a factor in his suicide] in The Barbaric Triumph: A Critical Anthology on the Writings of Robert E. Howard (ed. Don Herron; Wildside Press, Holicong, Pa., N.J., 2004), pp. 11-35; reprinted in The Dark Barbarian That Towers over All: The Robert E. Howard LitCrit MegaPack (ed. Don Herron; Kindle e-book, 2014)

Trout, Steve

“Elements of Horror in the Works of Robert E. Howard” [incl. themes & influences] in his Beltric Writes #14, pp. 3-6 in REHupa Mailing #50 (Mar., 1981); revised as “The Horror Fiction of Robert E. Howard” in The Dark Man #2 (ed. Rusty Burke; Necronomicon Press, West Warwick, R.I., July, 1991), pp. 2-11

Burke, Rusty

“Toward Other Lands: An Approach to Robert E. Howard” [REH’s genius as an author, esp. viewed as a Celtic bard, & his theme of personal freedom expressed by heroes who choose their own fate & by his own choice of suicide] in Burke et al.’s Rogues in the Appalachians, 8 pp. in REHupa Mailing #60 (Nov., 1982); reprinted in Lee Breakiron’s The Nemedian Chroniclers #28, pp. 21-28 in REHupa Mailing #276 (Apr., 2019); revised in The Dark Man #1 (ed. Rusty Burke; Necronomicon Press, West Warwick, R.I., Aug., 1990), pp. 17-22

Burke, Rusty

“The Active Voice: Robert E. Howard’s Personae” [REH’s personal interests during the boxing, Celtic, & Texan phases of his career, as expressed through his writings] in his Seanchai #62, pp. 7-12 in REHupa Mailing #110 (July, 1991); reprinted in The Dark Man #3 (ed. Rusty Burke; Necronomicon Press, West Warwick, R.I.), pp. 22-26 (Apr., 1993); extract in Harold Bloom’s “Robert E. Howard, 1906-1936” in Modern Fantasy Writers (Chelsea House Publishers, New York, 1995), pp. 57-70

Smith, David C.

Robert E. Howard: A Literary Biography [gives an account of REH’s life told with particular emphasis on its reflections in his own writings & as a comprehensive picture of him as a creative artist in his time & circumstance; tells how the context of his life informed his literary work at each stage of his career; & assesses his literary legacy] (Pulp Hero Press, US, 2018), 268 pp.

Cerasini, Marc A. & Hoffman,  Charles

Robert E. Howard: Starmont Reader’s Guide #35 [has chapters on REH’s life timeline; biography; his major heroes (created as a means of expressing his admiration for the values of barbarians & pioneer life) Bran Mak Morn, Solomon Kane, King Kull, & Conan; other fantasies; horror stories; & other prose & poetry; with primary & secondary source bibliographies & index; calls REH a realistic & …? writer & say his heroes have  convincing, complex morals, motives, & measures as human beings] (Starmont House, Mercer Island, Wash., 1987), 156 pp.; expanded as Hoffman & Cerasini’s Robert E. Howard: A Closer Look (Hippocampus Press, New York, 2020), 299 pp.

Smith, David C.

“The Writer’s Style: Sound and Syntax in Howard’s Sentences” [analysis of the sentence structure, voice, verb tense, word choices & sounds, & poetic devices in REH’s fiction & how they are designed to achieve desired effects upon the reader] in The Dark Man, Vol. 7, #1 (ed. Mark E. Hall et al.; Univ. of La Verne, Cal./Lulu.com, 2012), pp. 6-25

Hoffman, Charles

“Robert E. Howard vs. the Desert of the Real” [REH’s reinvention of traditional storytelling, transcending mere escapism, in  reaction to his own disillusionment with life] in Spectrum Super Special, Vol. 1, #2 (Win-Mill Productions, Arlington, Tex., June, 2004), pp. 96-102; posted at  http://charleshoffman.blogspot.com; revised as “Robert E. Howard: Twentieth-Century Mythmaker” in The Best of Robert E. Howard, Volume One: Crimson Shadows (Subterranean Press, Burton, Mich., 2009), pp. 474-484

Hoffman, Charles

“Bitter Pleasures and Swinish Stupidity: Robert E. Howard’s Take on Human Character” [REH’s perceptive, cynical references to endemic corruption & misanthropy in ostensibly civilized societies & individuals, often contrasted with the behavior of barbarians, as stated in his stories & in part based on his own experiences] in Two-Gun Bob: A Centennial Study of Robert E. Howard (ed. Benjamin Szumskyj; Hippocampus Press, New York, 2006), pp. 132-142

Hoffman, Charles

“Blood Lust” [REH stories in the Spicy-Adventure pulps] in The Cimmerian, Vol. 2, #5 (Leo Grin, Playa del Rey, Cal., Oct., 2005), pp. 4-14; revised at http://charleshoffman.blogspot.com

Price, Robert M.

“Christ and Conan: Howard’s View of Christianity” [REH’s religious beliefs or lack thereof] in Cromlech #1, Vol. 1, #1 (Marc A. Cerasini, New York, spring, 1985), pp. 14-23; erratum in  Cromlech #2, p. 31

Price, E. Hoffmann

“The Book of the Dead, Chapter 2: Robert Ervin Howard” [reminiscences of & opinions about REH & his family in general from letters & visits in 1934 & 1936; has letters from Isaac Howard to Price, REH to Farnsworth Wright & Price, & from Price to W. Paul Cook, plus REH’s “Some People Who Have Had Influence over Me” & “The Wandering Years”] in The Ghost #3 (W. Paul Cook, May, 1945), pp. 38-54; reprinted in West is West & Others (by REH et al.; ed. Rob Roehm & Joe Marek [latter writing as Alex Runions], Lulu.com, 2006), pp. 139-155; section “Robert E. Howard” revised as “A Memory of R. E. Howard” in Skull-Face and Others (by REH; Arkham House Publishers, Sauk City, Wis., 1946), pp. xvii-xxv & in Skull-Face Omnibus (Neville Spearman, Jersey, UK, 1974), pp. xvii-xxv & in The Last Celt: A Bio-Bibliography of Robert Ervin Howard (ed. Glenn Lord; Donald M. Grant, West Kingston, R.I., 1976; reprinted by Berkley Windhover (New York, 1977)), pp. 81-92 & in Skull-Face Omnibus, Vol. 1: Skull-Face and Others (by REH; Panther, St. Albans, England, 1976), pp. 18-31; same section revised as “Long Ago” in Amra, Vol. 2, #63 (ed. George H. Scithers; Terminus, Owlswick, & Ft. Mudge Electrick St. Railway Gazette, Philadelphia, Apr., 1975), pp. 5-8 & expanded as “Robert Ervin Howard, January 22, 1906-June 11, 1936” = Chap. IV of The Book of the Dead - Friends of Yesteryear: Fictioneers & Others (Memories of the Pulp Fiction Era) (Arkham House Publishers, Saul City, Wis., 2001), pp. 70-93

Smith, Tevis Clyde, Jr.

“Report on a Writing Man” [REH’s earliest writings; his dedication to writing & getting published; his relations with his family; his love of animals & his dog; his being bullied; his zest for literature & poetry; his resentments, moodiness, & fixation on suicide; Post Oaks and Sand Roughs; & his usual clothing] in The Howard Collector #4, Vol. 1, #4 (Glenn Lord, Pasadena, Tex., summer, 1963), pp. 3-14; reprinted in Smith’s Frontier’s Generation: The Pioneer History of Brown County with Sidelights on  the Surrounding Territory (Tevis Clyde Smith, Jr., Brownwood, Tex., 2nd, enlarged ed., 1980, pp. 140-154 w/preface “A Friend of Long Ago” & 3 photos of REH) & in Smith’s Report on a Writing Man and Other Reminiscences of Robert E. Howard (ed. Rusty Burke; Necronomicon Press, 1991), pp. 14-16 w/4 photos of REH

Smith, Tevis Clyde, Jr.

“Adventurer in Pulp” [reminiscences of REH, incl. The All-Around Magazine, REH’s education in Brownwood, Tex., his jobs, writing ambitions & achievements, his literary characters, his own nature, his favorite writers & other interests, & his love of animals] in Pecan Valley Days (Tevis Clyde Smith, Jr., Brownwood, Tex., 1956), pp. 44-47 w/2 photos of REH; reprinted in Smith’s Report on a Writing Man and Other Reminiscences of Robert E. Howard (ed. Rusty Burke; Necronomicon Press, 1991), pp. 11-12 & his So Far the Poet … & Other Writings (ed. Rusty Burke & Rob Roehm; The Robert E. Howard Foundation Press, Plano, Tex., 2010), pp. 217-219 & in Bill Cavalier’s Cold Steel #199, pp. 5-8 in REHupa Mailing #277 (June, 2019)

Smith, Tevis Clyde, Jr.

“The Magic Name (to Glenn Lord)” [personal impressions of & experiences with his friend REH, incl. Smith’s REH-related writings] in Fantasy Crossroads, Vol. 1, #10/11 (ed. Jonathan Bacon; Stygian Isle Press, Lamoni, Iowa, Mar., 1977), pp. 48-49; reprinted in his Report on a Writing Man and Other Reminiscences of Robert E. Howard (ed. Rusty Burke; Necronomicon Press, 1991), pp. 24-27 & in his So Far the Poet … & Other Writings (ed. Rusty Burke & Rob Roehm; The Robert E. Howard Foundation Press, Plano, Tex., 2010), pp. 241-246

Burke, Rusty

“De Camp vs. Howard: Rewriting Conan” [changes de Camp made in REH’s Conan stories, esp. “The Black Stranger” & “The Frost-Giant’s Daughter”; his motivations in doing so; & his stylistic differences from REH] in his Seanchai #78, pp. 10-20 in REHupa Mailing #140 (Aug., 1996); reprinted minus foreword in The Fantastic Worlds of Robert E. Howard (James Van Hise, Yucca Valley, Cal., 1997 & 2001), pp. 45-52 & in James Van Hise’s The Road to Velitrium #53, pp. 5-14 in REHupa Mailing #188 (Aug., 2004)

Herron, Don

“Conan vs. Conantics” [assessment & disapprobation of Conan pastiches written by L. Sprague de Camp & Lin Carter] in And in His Dream #5, pp. 2-9 in The Hyperborian League Mailing #5  (Oct., 1976); reprinted in REH: Two-Gun Raconteur #3 (ed. Damon C. Sasser; The Black Coast Press, Houston, winter, 1976), pp. 23-31 & in Herron’s Pusad Regurgitated #1, pp. 2-10 in REHupa Mailing #96 (Mar., 1989) & in Herron’s “Yours for Faster Hippos: Thirty Years of ‘Conan vs. Conantics’” in The Cimmerian Library, Vol. 4 (Leo Grin, Playa del Rey, Cal., 2007), pp. 6-17 followed by commentary & in The Dark Barbarian That Towers over All: The Robert E. Howard LitCrit MegaPack (ed. Don Herron; Kindle e-book, 2014); posted with intro. at http://www.donherron.com/some-essays/conan-vs-conantics/; see letters by Daniel Gobbett, Paul C. Allen, de Camp, Herron, Loay Hall, & Kevin Cook in REH:TGR #4, pp. 4, 5, & 36

Burke, Rusty

“The Old Deserted House: The South of Robert E. Howard” [use, origins, themes, & psychological significances of such images] in his Seanchai #28, pp. 4-7 in REHupa Mailing #75 (May, 1985); reprinted as “The Old Deserted House: Images of the South in Howard’s Fiction” in The Dark Man #2 (ed. Rusty Burke; Necronomicon Press, West Warwick, R.I., July, 1991), pp. 13-22

Blosser, Fred

“Sleuths, Secrets, and Grisly Mysteries: The Detective Fiction of Robert E. Howard” [survey thereof, with assessment of influences, motives, & quality] in Two-Gun Bob: A Centennial Study of Robert E. Howard (ed. Benjamin Szumskyj; Hippocampus Press, New York, 2006), pp. 39-58

Grin, Leo

“The Everlasting Barbarian: Robert E. Howard at 100 Years” [history of REH’s literary reputation & popularity] in Weird Tales #341 (Wildside Press, Rockville, Md., Aug./Sep., 2006), pp. 14-17; reprinted in The Robert E. Howard Reader (ed. Darrell Schweitzer; Borgo/Wildside Press, Rockville, Md., 2010), pp. 16-23

Grin, Leo

“The Reign of Blood” [REH’s stories & poems can project raw power & unbridled emotion representing a personal vision of the eternal darkness locked in man’s nature & a grim determinism that promises only fruitless struggle & violent death, & reflecting a fierce enmity against outrages that is every bit as real as that driving his fearless, vengeful protagonists, as well as REH’s belief that hatred is strength; rebuts Joshi’s disparagement of REH’s literary merits] in The Barbaric Triumph: A Critical Anthology on the Writings of Robert E. Howard (ed. Don Herron; Wildside Press, Holicong, Pa., N.J., 2004), pp. 141-160; reprinted in The Dark Barbarian That Towers over All: The Robert E. Howard LitCrit MegaPack (ed. Don Herron; Kindle e-book, 2014)

Rickard, Dennis

“Through the Black Boughs: The Supernatural in Howard’s Fiction” [REH’s favoring of escapist adventure & plot advancement takes precedence over weird mood in his supernatural stories, which are derivative & often unsuccessful] in The Dark Barbarian: The Writings of Robert E. Howard  ̶  A Critical Anthology (ed. Don Herron, Greenwood Press, Westport, Conn., 1984; reprinted by Wildside Press, Berkeley Heights, N.J., 2000), pp. 65-85 & in The Dark Barbarian That Towers over All: The Robert E. Howard LitCrit MegaPack (ed. Don Herron; Kindle e-book, 2014)

Günther, Dierk

“Local Color and Its Underlying Meaning in Robert E. Howard’s Weird Western, Southern Gothic Horror, and Detective Stories” [REH had a talent for using history, culture, mannerisms, etc. of regions like the American Southwest, the Piney Woods of Texas, & Southern swamplands to imbue authenticity, realism, & atmosphere into stories set in such locales, even to the point of inserting his personal opinions about frontier life, the Old West, barbarism vs. civilization, & race relations] in The Dark Man, Vol. 8, #2 (Columbia, S.C., Aug., 2017), pp. 157-186

Günther, Dierk

“Faces of Kane: Exploring the Identity of Robert E. Howard’s Puritan Swordsman” [origin & character facets of Solomon Kane, incl. his guises as Texas avenger, religious fanatic, & eternal hero] in The Dark Man, Vol. 10, #1 (ed. Jason Ray Carney & Emmelhainz-Carney; Columbia, S.C., Jan., 2019), pp. 20-37

Shovlin, Paul

“Raising Kane” [Solomon Kane’s true motivation & emotions, which are often contradictory & evolving, & their part in REH’s “subversive” lit] in The Cimmerian, Vol. 4, #3 (Leo Grin, Playa del Rey, Cal., June, 2007), pp. 25-30

Holmes, Morgan

“Gothic to Cosmic: Sword-and-Sorcery Fiction in Weird Tales” [origins of the S & S subgenre, REH’s early S & S, the Conan tales, & S & S tales in WT by Clark Ashton Smith, C. L. Moore, & others] = Chap. 5 in The Unique Legacy of Weird Tales: The Evolution of Modern Fantasy and Horror (ed. Justin Everett & Jeffrey H. Shanks; Rowman & Littlefield, Lanham, Md., 2015), pp. 63-79

Holmes, Morgan

“The First Posthumous Collaborator” [identifies Otto Binder as the anonymous writer who completed Almuric] in The Cimmerian, Vol. 5, #6 (Leo Grin, Playa del Rey, Cal., Dec., 2008), pp. 17-24; reprinted in Holmes’s Enter the Barbarian: A Robert E. Howard LitCrit TriplePunch Pack! (Kindle e-book, 2016); collaborator shown to be Farnsworth Wright by Anderson, Douglas A., “New Evidence on the Posthumous Editing of Robert E. Howard’s Almuric,” posted at  https://ashiverinthearchives.blogspot.com/2016/03/new-evidence-on-posthumous-editing-of.html

Richter, Larry

“The Least of Bob Howard” [analyzes REH literary tools & techniques for accomplishing desired effects on the reader, e.g. vividness, clarity, speed of comprehension, belief, & emotional participation] in The Highwayman, Vol. 1, #2, pp. 1-5 in REHupa Mailing #146 (Aug., 1997); revised in The Highwayman, Dec. 2000, pp. 3-5 in REHupa Mailing #166 (Dec., 2000); revised in Rusty Burke’s Seanchai, Aug., 2014, pp. 6-10 in REHupa Mailing #248 (Aug., 2014) & in The Dark Man, Vol. 7, #2 (ed. Mark E. Hall et al.; Lulu.com, Dec., 2014), pp. 80-94

Leno, Brian

“Lovecraft’s Southern Vacation” [examines extent to which “Pigeons from Hell” might have been inspired by REH’s reading of & interaction with Lovecraft, & comments on Thriller TV adaptation] in The Cimmerian, Vol. 3, #2 (Leo Grin, Playa del Rey, Cal., Feb., 2006), pp. 13-19 w/photo; reprinted in Lovecraft’s Southern Vacation: A Robert E. Howard LitCrit TriplePunchPack! (Kindle e-book, 2015)

Tompkins, Steven

“Green Roaring Tides of the Atlantean Sea: Kull’s Emerald Epic” [role of the sea & the legend of Atlantis in the fiction of REH & others, esp. about Kull] in REH: Two-Gun Raconteur #10 (ed. Damon C. Sasser; The Black Coast Press, Spring, Tex., winter, 2006), pp. 33-42

Falconer, Lee N.

A Gazeteer of the Hyborian World of Conan, Including Also the World of Kull and an Ethnogeographical Dictionary of Principal Peoples of the Era [descriptions of countries, cities, topographical features, & peoples referenced to stories, w/preface & appendices of Conan & Kull story chronologies, REH’s “Notes on Various Peoples of the Hyborian Age,” Notes on Hyborian Heraldry and Cartography, & source maps of the Hyborian world; 1st map is from REH’s The Hyborian Age (LANY, 1938); 2nd map (1st appearance) is by REH (c. Mar., 1936) mistakenly said by Falconer to be from Clark & Miller; & 3rd is by Tim Conrad (1st appearance in The Savage Sword of Conan the Barbarian #9 (Marvel Comics Group, New York, Dec., 1975), pp. 24-25 & reprinted in #85 (Feb., 1983), pp. 60-61 & #90 (July, 1983), inside covers; see Scotty Henderson’s The Keltic Journal, Vol. 18, 4 pp. in REHupa Mailing #182 (Aug., 2003) & his 20 Feb., 2019 Facebook.com post in Robert E. Howard: The Father of Sword and Sorcery) (Starmont House, West Linn, Ore., 1977), 142 pp.; reprinted in TSSoCtB #30 (June, 1978), pp. 48-53 & 62; #31 (July, 1978), pp. 56-58, 60, & 62; #33 (Sep., 1978), pp. 32-37; #35 (Nov., 1978), pp. 44-50; #36 (Dec., 1978), pp. 56, 58, & 60; #38 (Mar., 1979), pp. 56-59; #39 (Apr., 1979), pp. 34-35 & 56-57; #40 (May, 1979), pp. 52-56; #42 (July, 1979), pp. 38-42; #43 (Aug., 1979) [“Notes on Various …”], pp. 40-44; & #44 (Sep., 1979) [Notes on Hyborian …”], pp. 48-50

Burke, Rusty

“The Note” [examines what is known about REH’s supposed suicide note, finding much is apochryphal & that it, if real, was prob. in his billfold, not typewriter; poet Viola Garvin’s obituary appended by Grin in “All Fled, All Done: A Coda”] in The Cimmerian, Vol. 3, #1 (Leo Grin, Playa del Rey, Cal., Jan., 2006), pp. 5-12; reprinted as “La Dernière Lettre” in French in Échos de Cimmérie: Hommage à Robert Ervin Howard (1906-1936) (ed. Fabrice Tortey; Les Éditions de l’Oeil du Sphinx, Paris, 2009), pp. 121-127 plus references but minus obituary

Burke, Rusty

“Robert E. Howard Fiction and Verse Timeline” [chronological list of when he wrote & submitted such works] (Celtic Weirdness Productions, Silver Spring, Md.), 42 pp.  in REHupa Mailing #150 (Apr., 1998) with Corrections and Additions in Seanchai #88, pp. 4-6 in REHupa Mailing #152 (Aug., 1998); revised at  http://www.howardworks.com/timeline.htm

Sammon, Paul M.

Conan the Phenomenon [documents REH’s creation of Conan & gives an overview of its impact on popular culture, namely Conan books, magazines, comics, films, computer games, etc.; intro. by Michael Moorcock] (Dark Horse, Milwaukie, Ore., 2007), 174 pp. w/photos

Kohoutek, Karen Joan

“The Outsider Scholar: Robert E. Howard, H. P. Lovecraft, and Scholarly Identity” [explores & contrasts the positions REH & HPL take relative to intellectual & artistic life & pursuits, their  identities as writers & thinkers in an oblivious society, & the absolute vs. relative value of human worth & achievement in an infinite, uncaring universe, esp. in the framework of their barbarism vs. civilization debate in their mutual  correspondence, & what the effects their differing attitudes have in their abilities to survive the vicissitudes of life; HPL insists on the superiority of the orderliness, quality of life, & outcomes in civilized societies compared to crude, dangerous barbarism, while REH advocates the zestful physicality & unfettered  individual freedom in barbarism compared with decadent, oppressive civilization] in The Temple of Asura Library Newsletter #12, pp. 1-12 & #13, pp. 1-3 & #15, pp. 1-15 & #17, pp. 1-12 in REHupa Mailings #240 (Apr., 2013) & #241 (June, 2013) & #244 (Dec., 2013) & #246 (Apr., 2014) respectively; revised as Part 1 in The Dark Man, Vol. 8, #1 (ed. Mark E. Hall et al.; Lulu.com, 2015), pp. 85-117 & Part 2 in The Dark Man, Vol. 9 (ed. Mark E. Hall et al.; Columbia, S.C., Jan., 2019), pp. 46-85

Tompkins, Steven

“North by Southwest; or, The Yellow Rose of Valhalla” [“The Marchers of Valhalla” analyzed as violent Frontier Myth in ancient Tex.] in his Vision, Gryphons, Nothing and the Night #2 (winter, 2001), 8 pp. at REHeapa (http://www.robert-e-howard.org); revised as “North by Southwest: By Chaos out of Dream in ‘The Marchers of Valhalla’” in The Robert E. Howard Companion #1 (ed. Joe Marek; Seele Brennt Publ., New Paltz, N.Y., Nov., 2004), pp. 10-17

Tompkins, Steven

“J. R. R. Tolkien and Robert E. Howard: Together Again for the Very First Time” [comparison of REH’s & Tolkien’s fantasy, lives, & legacies] in his Expecting the Barbarians #16, pp. 20-39 in REHupa Mailing #155 (Feb., 1999); revised as “The Shortest Distance between Two Towers” in Vision, Gryphons, Nothing and the Night #4 (winter, 2002), 12 pp. at REHeapa (http://www.robert-e-howard.org); reprinted as such in The Cimmerian, Vol. 3, #3 (Leo Grin, Playa del Rey, Cal., Mar., 2006), pp. 4-15 w/photo of REH

Waterman, Edward A.

“The Shadow from a Soul on Fire: Robert E. Howard and Irrationalism” [REH’s independence from orthodox intellectual thought, esp. about philosophy & religion, & his thinking about the nature of reality & determination of truth show rebellion against logic & reason that is consonant with romanticism, irrationalism, & existentialism, affirming the importance of emotion, instinct, intuition, the unconscious, & racial memory & indicating a dialectical dualism that favors neither materialism nor idealism but that maximizes freedom] in The Barbaric Triumph: A Critical Anthology on the Writings of Robert E. Howard (ed. Don Herron; Wildside Press, Berkeley Heights, N.J., 2004), pp. 37-57; reprinted in The Dark Barbarian That Towers over All: The Robert E. Howard LitCrit MegaPack (ed. Don Herron; Kindle e-book, 2014; see S. T. Joshi’s Letter in The Dark Man #8 & Waterman’s reply in TDM, Vol. 2, #1/2

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